Reaction Cells

Perfection by Design

Ultrasonic Processing Equipment Construction Details

Every ultrasonic system has (3) interdependent electrical assemblies. Generators, control circuits and triggers, and magnetostrictive transducers. These  modular assemblies are configured to maximize the processing kinetics for the installation.  Ultrasonics will be able to operate at full performance.


Ultrasonic Generators

The ultrasonic generator converts 50/60 Hz AC power into high-frequency ultrasonic power. The generator is a trigger controlled power driver optimized to activate a particular transducerized load. The high-frequency power signal forces the transducers to vibrate at the frequency determined by the trigger.  Vibrating transducers create the intense sound field of pressure waves within the ultrasonic processing chamber. This sound pressure wave fluctuating intensity is responsible for the useful work produced by the ultrasonic reactor.

The generator's load can be a single transducer element or multiple transducer banks. A transducer bank is a group of (2) or more transducer elements driven by a single ultrasonic generator. We combine multiple transducer banks into a large single system for processing vast volumes of material.

Multiple generators are grouped and synchronized to deliver uniform and consistent peak-to-peak displacement. A single trigger pulse is used to synchronize all generator & transducer groups to operate in unison. The ultimate power using ultrasonics delivered to the process solution is magnified by this team effort.

Fixed Ultrasonic Power
Our ultrasonic generators are available in 750 Watt, 1,200 Watt and 2,000 Watt modules. The 750 Watt generator is ideal for installations requiring a modest amount of ultrasonic energy for effective activation. Increasing the generator's power to 1,200 Watts or 2,000 Watts will increase processing performance and system throughput.

We build our larger systems in 2,000 Watt increments. The trigger pulse control for the 2,000 Watt generator may be synchronized for our multiple generator systems.

Variable Ultrasonic Power
We can equip our generators with Variable Ultrasonic Power. This feature offers the ability to run the system at reduced power levels to characterize the reaction kinetics. The Variable Power control feature allows the operator to adjust the ultrasonic energy from 0% to 100%. The ultrasonic power can be adjusted from below the cavitation threshold to the maximum amount available. The Variable Ultrasonic Power feature includes an ammeter for output power monitoring.


Generator Control Circuits

The control of various ultrasonic operating parameters is determined by the trigger and related control circuits. Common features for our systems include:

Our generators are provided with an ultrasonic power "soft-start". The soft-start feature allows the generator to ramp-up to full power over a several second duration. Our controlled ramp-up circuitry minimizes the power loading impact for our large systems with multiple generators.

Instant ON
We also offer generators with Instant ON capabilities. The Instant ON feature provides instantaneous acoustic activity inside the ultrasonic processing chamber. This feature is ideal for ultrasonic soldering and other applications requiring concise ultrasonic control.

We also offer a quick-start for systems with our Ultrasonic Pulsed Operation option installed. The quick-start feature allows the generator to ramp-up to full power over several milliseconds.

Sweep Frequency Operation (SFO)
We can equip our ultrasonic generators with Sweep Frequency Operation. The Sweep Frequency function mode produces a dynamic frequency response within the transducer bank. The Frequency Sweep constantly shifts the standing wave pattern within the reactor by superimposing a variable frequency onto the primary frequency. This feature can significantly improve the performance of a single frequency system.

Ultrasonic Pulsed Operation (UPO)
Our Ultrasonic Pulsed Operation option is ideal for Liquid Degasification. The pulsed mode offers the ability to operate the sonics with an adjustable "ON time" and an adjustable "quiet time".

The "ON time" allows the generator to swiftly ramp up to full ultrasonic power. Microscopic dissolved gas bubbles within the process solution will coalesce during the ultrasonic ON cycle.

The quiet time offers the ability for the coalesced gas molecules to rise within the acoustically activated solution. The rate in which the coalesced bubbles rise is dependent upon buoyancy forces, viscosity, dwell time in the ultrasonic chamber, and fluid flow characteristics. Our UPO feature offers the ability to activate the ultrasonics in either a continuous ON mode or in the pulsed mode.


Ultrasonic Transducers

We have found that the permanent performance of our silver-brazed magnetostrictive transducers is critical to the long-term success of the ultrasonic installation. Transducer performance consistency is assured by our choice of magnetostrictive elements and our permanent silver-brazed bond.

The wrought family of magnetostrictive alloys are unique. The material may be subjected to fluctuating magnetic field stresses indefinitely without deterioration in performance. This physical phenomena is unmatched by other transducer types.

The silver-brazed metallurgical bond is acoustically perfect for transmitting energy. Sound energy passes through the joint without detectable attenuation. The bonding strength and energy transmission effectiveness of the silver-brazed bond is ideal for transferring transducer power into the processing solution.

Transducer Styles Available

We offer (3) different styles of magnetostrictive transducers. Zero-Spaced lamination transducers, zero-spaced Window Lamination transducers, and Spaced-Lamination transducers. Each transducer group has it's own unique set of characteristics. Optimum processing performance is strongly influenced by the transducer style chosen.

Our Zero-Spaced and our Window Lamination transducers are ideal for driving massive loads with high power. The vibrating inertia (from the large mass of the zero-spaced transducer laminations) is insensitive to varying operating parameters that suppress acoustic power transmission.

Many Zero-Spaced lamination transducer elements may be mounted in large arrays to process large volumes of material. Our Zero-Spaced laminations can be ganged into transducer banks and driven synchronously for large processing systems/installations. This packaging arrangement offers an economical approach to large system construction.

Our Window Lamination transducer is truly a solid state device. The transducer element is constructed from a stack of brazed transducer laminations and a coil of wire to magnetically energize the assembly. The Window Lamination transducer is perfect for installations in which the ultrasonic device is subjected to external shock loading and/or external high-intensity vibrations. The Window Lamination transducer is robust and cannot be shaken apart.

Spaced Lamination transducer systems deliver a uniform energy profile across the length and width of the diaphragm plate. This unique configuration offers us the ability to match the impedance of the actual transducer assembly to the load requiring acoustic treatment. The overall system performance and efficiency is dramatically increased with the Spaced Lamination transducer.

Our Continuous Acoustic Membrane transducer systems combined with our Dual-Frequency Processing Technology delivers an absolutely uniform acoustic energy profile across the length, width and gap of the energized chamber. The 3-Dimensional Reaction Chamber assures uniform and consistent ultrasonic treatment for every particle passing through.


Anodes, Cathodes,  and Electrode Plates

Electro-Acoustical Reaction Cell.
The diaphragm plates may be electrically charged while acoustically activated.  This offers the ability to ultrasonically irradiate the fluid or slurry within a stable electrified field to provide an acid/base (pH) contrast or oxidation/reduction potential contrast to promote precipitation or crystallization.  Cathode plates do not scale even with very high hardness due to continuous ultrasonic clean.  With ozone sparging into the electro-acoustical reaction cell, organics in wastewater are removed with near instantaneous wet combustion at super-critical water conditions at each cavitation bubble collapse with water dilution, soil, contaminated with energetic or explosive material, can be reacted to form gaseous end-products and clean soil in a single pass.  Stationary plates or moving belts may be suspended within the electro-acoustical field providing uniform ultrasonic exposure for all material passing through.

Electro-Acoustical Extraction Cell.
The slurry surrounding the center cathode diaphragm plate may be acoustically activated to provide mass limited extraction instead of diffusion limited extraction.  The cathode plate remains in the anti-node of the sonic field to collect precious/heavy metals from the low quality ore or industrial waste product.  This process is excellent for extraction of metals from fly ash or mine tailings.  For extraction of liquid metals such as mercury, slurry flows perpendicular to the plate and mercury collects in the  tray at the bottom of the plate.

Electro-Acoustical Membrane Cell.
The fluid surrounding the center membrane may be acoustically activated to approach near mass limited extraction.  The anionic/cationic membrane rests in the anti-node to prevent cavitation damage while providing a very high pH contrast between the anode and cathode compartments.  The cathode plate does not scale due to continuous ultrasonic cleaning.  A sweeping acoustic field can reduce membrane/porous plate fouling.




November 28, 2005