Reaction Cells


Dual-Frequency Spacers and Reaction Cells

Our Dual-Frequency Technology can be fitted with Spacers and Reaction Cells built to optimize your processing results.  Different cell configurations may be sandwiched between diaphragm plates to accommodate process and installation requirements.  The Dual-Frequency Reactor and Spacer combination creates the Reaction Cell for the Ultrasonic System.

Continuous Flow Operation
The uniform energy profile within the Dual-Frequency Reaction Chamber is ideal for continuous flow systems.  The location of the inlet and outlet ports strongly influence the processing capabilities for the given configuration.  Various spacer styles are available to optimize the processing capabilities of the overall system.

Common Continuous Flow Spacer Configurations Include:

The Inline Spacer.
The Inline Spacer passes the process solution straight through the ultrasonic Reaction Chamber.  The Inline Spacer is easy to install in existing piping networks.


The spacer combines the inlet and outlet transition flares with the spacer sidewalls.  Fully welded structures are self cleaning and deliver many years of reliable performance.  The Inline Spacer may also be clamped in place to provide internal access for daily cleaning and inspection.


The Gas Sparged Reaction Cell.
The GSR Cell allows gas to be introduced into the process solution directly within the ultrasonic reaction chamber.  The steady state ultrasonic energy maximizes the diffusion rates at the liquid/gas interface.



The Sparged Reaction Cell.
The SRC allows a separate liquid supply to be sparged into the reaction chamber for acoustic treatment of the mixture.  The ultrasonic energy will disperse, control precipitation/crystallization rates and particle sizes while increasing reaction kinetics.  We offer a variety of Sparger Manifolds to accommodate your objective(s).


This SRC System has (6) Sparging Manifolds for the introduction of a secondary feed into the main process stream.  The transducers are located in a sparger mixing zone and downstream for additional ultrasonic treatment.



The Extraction Cell.
Extraction Cell is built to suspend raw material feed stock directly in the ultrasonic reaction chamber.  This technique is ideal for extractions, organometallic synthesis and sonochemical reactions.  The process solution flows through the suspended material providing continuous operation.  Fresh feed stock may be added while the system is in full operation.


Electro-Acoustical Reaction Cell.
The diaphragm plates may be electrically charged while acoustically activated.  This offers the ability to ultrasonically irradiate the sample within a stable electrified field.  Stationary plates or moving belts may be suspended within the electro-acoustical field providing uniform ultrasonic exposure for all material passing through.



Electro-Acoustical Reaction Cell.
The diaphragm plates may be electrically charged while acoustically activated.  This offers the ability to ultrasonically irradiate the fluid or slurry within a stable electrified field to provide an acid/base (pH) contrast or oxidation/reduction potential contrast to promote precipitation or crystallization.  Cathode plates do not scale even with very high hardness due to continuous ultrasonic clean.  With ozone sparging into the electro-acoustical reaction cell, organics in wastewater are removed with near instantaneous wet combustion at super-critical water conditions at each cavitation bubble collapse.  With water dilution, soil, contaminated with energetic or explosive material, can be reacted to form gaseous end-products and clean soil in a single pass.  Stationary plates or moving belts may be suspended within the electro-acoustical field providing uniform ultrasonic exposure for all material passing through.




Electro-Acoustical Extraction Cell.
The slurry surrounding the center cathode diaphragm plate may be acoustically activated to provide mass limited extraction instead of diffusion limited extraction.  The cathode plate remains in the anti-node of the sonic field to collect precious/heavy metals from the low quality ore or industrial waste product.  This process is excellent for extraction of metals from fly ash or mine tailings.  For extraction of liquid metals such as mercury, slurry flows perpendicular to the plate and mercury collects in the  tray at the bottom of the plate.



Electro-Acoustical Membrane Cell.
The fluid surrounding the center membrane may be acoustically activated to approach near mass limited extraction.  The anionic/cationic membrane rests in the anti-node to prevent cavitation damage while providing a very high pH contrast between the anode and cathode compartments.  The cathode plate does not scale due to continuous ultrasonic cleaning.  A sweeping acoustic field can reduce membrane/porous plate fouling.


Batch Operation
The Dual-Frequency Reactor may also be configured for batch operation. The intense ultrasonic energy will quickly heat the process solution during non-flow operating conditions.

We offer several methods for controlling the process solution's bulk temperature. These include: Temperature Control Reactors, Thermal Controlled Core Reactors, or our Liquid Twin Diaphragm Plates.


Common Open Top Spacers for Batch Operation Include:

A "U" Shaped Spacer may be positioned between the diaphragm plates. The Spacer's cavity may be filled with your process solution or a coupling fluid, (ie. oil, ethylene glycol, water). The U-Spacer allows samples to be inserted through the top opening for ultrasonic treatment. Solid material may be immersed directly into the process solution and treated with ultrasonic energy.

When the Spacer's cavity is filled with a coupling fluid, test tube(s) may easily inserted through the top opening. This technique is ideal for the quick treatment of many small samples. A large number of data points may be desirable for Reaction Characterization for system and process scale-up.


A wedge-shaped or "V" Shaped Spacer offers the operator the ability to add material directly to the ultrasonically energized process solution. V-Spacers are ideal for film removal from catalytic material surfaces.


The V-Spacer also may be used for enhancing the extraction kinetics of the material introduced into the processing cavity. The material is added to the reaction chamber through the upper "V" opening. The ultrasonic intensity increases as the material flows toward the bottom of the "V" Shaped Reaction Cell.


Open Top Shirts
A NAP Reactor can be easily converted into an open top processing chamber. An Open Top Shirt may be clamped/bolted to one section of the NAP Reactor and filled with either a coupling fluid or cleaning detergent. This long narrow vessel is useful for treating a group of beakers or cleaning your glass pipettes.


Customized Spacers and Reaction Cells
Our manufacturing flexibility enables us to build a customized spacer for your particular processing requirements. We can use your choice of materials for construction. The conveyance lines may be attached to the Spacer/Cell via raised-face flanges, sanitary fittings or threaded plumbing connections. Feel free to contact our sales engineering department to discuss your particular requirements.



July 30,  2004